The first deliverable of the Project is READY


The SmartHubs Ladder - Description of the multidemsional mobility hub typology -

Lead authors: Karst Geurs,  Karla Münzel

SmartHubs Deliverable D 2.1

This first scientific publication is based on the MSc. thesis project conducted by Johan Horjus, a student from the University of Twente. Focusing on the digital skills scale, a survey was conducted at a public transport stop in one of our case study areas, Leyenburg, The Hague. The purpose was to investigate the intention to use shared modes and public transport in a multimodal transport network.​

According to the findings, the conclusion is that the intention to use shared transport is higher for people who are younger, have a high level of education, and a high level of digital skills.


First published paper

Scientific Paper:

Integration of shared transport at a public transport stop: mode choice intentions of different user segments at a mobility hub.


MSc. thesis:

Integration of shared transport at a public transport stop: the intention to use means of transport in a multimodal transport system

The SmartHubs OpenData Platform (ODP) is live and we're open to welcome new co-editors!

The ODP is an online platform to get all the information about the data collected in the living labs and existing mobility hubs.​


Open Data Platform is welcoming new editors

Contribute Mobility Hubs to the platforms which can be learning cases for other practitioners, compare your mobility hub on the SmartHubs Ladder and download the data for further analyses.

To access the Open Data Platform please visit:

On May 19th the International Symposium on Inclusive Mobility Hubs, organized by the SmartHubs and CROW, took place in The Hague. We were hosted by the Municipality of The Hague with a great view over the Grote Markt in The Hague and had many fruitful discussions on the topic of inclusive, integrated mobility and the potential role of mobility hubs.


International Symposium
on Inclusive Mobility Hubs

Slides here

Our moderator of the day, Edwin van Uum (UUM), led us through a morning packed with information about tools developed in the SmartHubs project, international hub examples, and panel discussions on the challenges of developing inclusive hubs.

Professor Karst Geurs of the University of Twente and project leader of the European Smarthubs project kicked off the morning with an introduction to the SmartHubs project and its five living labs in the Netherlands, Munich, Vienna, Brussels, and Istanbul. He presented the SmartHubs integration ladder which categorizes hubs on their physical, digital, and democratic integration and includes inclusive design principles.

Christoph Kirchberger of the Technical University Vienna introduced the mobility hub ecosystem of Vienna and Eastern Austria to us which includes a whole network of mobility hubs facilitated by a wide range of actors. Examples of measures that support inclusion in these hubs include co-creation methods involving different actors during the design phase of hubs or digital skills training courses and test events during the operation phase.

Christoph also proudly launched the SmartHubs Open Data Platform ( which is the first cross-project open data platform for mobility hubs learning cases and allows to collect data on mobility hubs, compare hubs, and to analyze integration levels. We are happy to welcome new contributors on the ODP: Register


The participants then split up into three groups for breakout sessions:

1)  One group was introduced to the SmartHubs design game, a participatory co-creation tool developed in the SmartHubs project with augmented reality features. Four players took up new characters and discussed and negotiated which mobility and non-mobility elements should be placed at a square (Hobbemaplein) in The Hague. Karla Münzel (University of Twente) led through the game and Hilda Tellioglu (TU Vienna) explained the game features. Participants recognized the value of visualizing designs and the playful way of taking into account different perspectives and needs.

2) A second group discussed which governance factors influence the successful implementation of mobility hubs. Julia Hansel (WWU Münster) presented a framework for the governance of mobility hubs and led through a discussion on the influence of multiple governance aspects like the choice of locations for hubs, unclear responsibilities, and multi-level networks, stakeholder cooperation or the integration of hubs into policies.

3) The third group discussed the inclusion of vulnerable-to-exclusion citizens at mobility hubs. A relevant topic when you consider that current users of new mobility services like shared bikes or scooters are predominantly young, higher educated males. Jesse Pappers (VU Brussel) led through a discussion on barriers experienced by different groups, the reduction of barriers, and the question if hubs should be accessible to diverse groups from a cost-effectiveness perspective.​

​After the breakout sessions, Diederik Basta of the municipality of Amsterdam and Martin Courtz of the province of Drenthe shared their insights from mobility hub projects in Amsterdam and Groningen-Drenthe with us. They explained their efforts for making hubs inclusive and using them as tools for a wider area of aspects next to transport and shared the struggles around inclusivity. Séverine Kas (KennisOverZien) then introduced us to the challenges faced by travelers with visual impairments and reflected on the opportunities and risks of inclusive mobility hubs. An interactive panel discussion evolved around the challenges of inclusive hub design which was then continued by representatives of the cities of The Hague and Rotterdam (Charles Huijts and Mariet de Haas) and the local public transit providers HTM and RET (Sandra Nijënstein and Halmar Kranenburg). Closing the symposium the audience and the panel agreed that hubs could act as game changers for transport and as a tool for increasing accessibility but that implementation knows many challenges.

The SmartHubs Integration Ladder is based on three dimensions:  the physical, digital and democratic integration dimensions, each dimension having 5 levels.

  • Physical integration describes how well the physical connection of multiple mobility modes and other functions are physically integrated.

  • Digital integration describes how well information from various mobility offerings are integrated into a single digital platform.

  • Democratic integration is based on principles of participatory governance, encompassing integration of citizens in the development of hubs to create more inclusive hubs catering for the needs of a wide variety of different users. 


SmartHubs in VerkeersNet TV

What is a mobility hub? What are expected impacts? Professor Karst Geurs, SmartHubs project leader, talked about the SmartHubs project in an online Dutch TV programme (Verkeersnet TV) Monday Feb 14 2022.


The first deliverable of the Project is READY



How are mobility hubs defined and categorized in academic literature and planning practice? What is a smart mobility hub? Where are mobility hubs located in Europe?

If you want to set up smart mobility hubs in your city or you are researching about them, we summarized different definitions, categorisations and typologies for you in the first deliverable of the SmartHubs project: "A multi-dimensional typology and inventory of mobility hubs".


As one of the main outcomes, we developed a SmartHubs integration ladder, distinguishing different integration aspects that influence the use and societal impact of mobility hubs: the Physical, Digital and Democratic integration. 

Finally, we developed the first open data platform with an inventory of mobility hubs in Europe. 

We had our first physical meeting in Brussels.


In this meeting, we discussed which tools should be used at each one of our living labs in the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, Austria, and Turkey. After defining what makes a mobility hub SMART, we developed an integration ladder for categorizing mobility hubs.


Find out more in our open data platform:
We are looking forward to our upcoming physical meetings in The Hague/Rotterdam and Vienna in spring and autumn 2022.


First Live SmartHubs Meeting




We officially started

-Press release-


Mobility Hub in Vienna (WienMobil station Simminger Platz).

Photo by: Yusak Susilo

smarthub wien.jpg

Project: SmartHubs - Smart Mobility Hubs as Game Changers in Transport


Duration: 5/2021-4/2024

Smart Mobility Hubs as Game Changers in Transport

Can mobility hubs, on-street locations offering a variety of shared mobility options such as electric bicycles and cars, contribute to inclusive and sustainable urban mobility? This is examined in the 3-year project SmartHubs which started in May 2021 and will run until April 2024.


The project is one of 15 international projects from the JPI ERA-NET Cofund Urban Accessibility and Connectivity call funded by 23 national funding agencies from 16 countries in Europe. The SmartHubs project is coordinated by Prof. Karst Geurs from the Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Technology, at the University of Twente, with a budget of 2 million Euros.

SmartHubs will examine if mobility hubs can be a game changer towards inclusive and sustainable urban mobility.  Will mobility hubs improve cycling and public transport and reduce car use? Will they promote better access to shared mobility like e-scooters, car-sharing and bike-sharing? SmartHubs will take a people-first approach and test novel participatory and impact assessment tools including technologies such as augmented reality combining the real and online world as well as participatory planning and evaluation approaches involving all stakeholders and especially vulnerable-to-exclusion persons.

The research will be conducted in Living Labs in the Rotterdam-the Hague metropolitan region, Brussels, Munich, Vienna and Istanbul.

  • The focus of the living lab in Vienna is on designing a citywide mobility hub network through co-creation processes. This Living Lab provides a unique flexibility in (re-)designing user-centric mobility hubs and provides room to experiment on the design level of SmartHubs.

  • The focus of the living lab in Brussels is on the co-creation of the first neighbourhood-level prototype mobility hub with key stakeholders (citizens, businesses, transport operators, municipalities, etc.) in Anderlecht.

  • The focus of the living lab in Rotterdam-The Hague is on the digital and physical integration with public transport.

  • The focus of the living lab in Munich is on integrated passenger and freight transport (city logistics) mobility hubs.

  • The focus of the living lab in Istanbul is on mobility hubs in unplanned and growing urban developments in an emerging economy.

Mobility Hub in Vienna (WienMobil station Simminger Platz).

Photo by: Yusak Susilo


The MOBI Mobility, Logistics and Automotive Technology Research Centre at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB) is looking for a doctoral researcher who will contribute to interdisciplinary research in the domains of transport, sustainability and socio-economic assessment. The goal is to complete a PhD based on the different research projects in which the researcher will have been involved. The candidate will contribute to the ongoing JPI Urban Europe research project Smart Mobility Hubs as Game Changers in Transport (Smarthubs) that examines mobility hubs, dedicated on-street locations where citizens can choose from different shared and sustainable mobility options. The main objective is to assess if a co-designed, usercentric development can enable mobility hubs to act as a game changer towards inclusive sustainable urban mobility and accessibility. In the living lab in Anderlecht (Brussels Region), the project will demonstrate the Smarthubs cocreation process for mobility hubs and appraise the feasibility and potential impact of such mobility hubs and co-create the first neighbourhood-level prototype mobility hub with key stakeholders (citizens, businesses, transport operators, municipalities, etc.) with specific focus on vulnerable-to-exclusion persons (ethnic minorities, low-income, low-educated) as well as digital inclusion.


• The candidate will carry out academic research in the domains of mobility and socio-economic assessment.

• She/he will contribute to the implementation of the Smarthubs living lab in Anderlecht by organising and implementing the co-creation process, liaising with local stakeholders and citizens through interviews and workshops.

• She/he will contribute to other Smarthubs tasks such as the development of key performance indicators, a co-creation approach and policy recommendations.

• She/he will assist the project manager (senior researcher and the team leader) in project management activities such as project reporting, organisation of workshops and conferences.

• She/he will write research reports and valorise research results in popular and academic publications.

• She/he will present research results at workshops and conferences.

• She/he will contribute to public dissemination activities.

• She/he will supervise master thesis students.


 Vacancy for a PhD researcher (100%)

Research Centre at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel in Brussels, Belgium



• A Master’s Degree in Transportation, Transport Planning, Urban planning, Urban studies, Economics, Geography, Management, Commercial engineer (Handelsingenieur), Political science, Sustainable Development, Sociology or related discipline.

• Interest in mobility and socio-economic assessments

• Strong oral and written communication skills in English and French.

• The ability to communicate effectively with a wide range of partners.

• Good time management and planning skills, with the ability to meet tight deadlines and work effectively under pressure.

• Good knowledge of Microsoft Excel and other Office applications

Additionally valued:

• Good qualitative research skills

• Knowledge of SPSS and GIS software

• Good knowledge of Dutch is an advantage.

Starting date: 1 September 2021

How to apply?

Please submit

• a CV with contact details of two references;

• a short cover letter (max 500 words) expressing your specific interest in working at MOBI and pursuing a PhD;

• a sample of a publication or report in English that you had substantial contribution to (e.g. Master’s thesis).

Deadline for applications: 28/07/2021

Candidates that have not yet acquired their Master’s degree can apply and participate in the selection procedure, but need to offer proof of registration in their Masters programme and need to have complied with all diploma requirements before starting their position at VUB-MOBI.

For more information please contact:

Prof. Dr. Imre Keseru, deputy co-director